Fruit and berry plants
Cranberry (Latin Oxycoccus) - a subgenus of flowering plants of the Heather family, which combines creeping evergreen shrubs, whose natural range is located in the Northern Hemisphere. The fruits of all types of cranberries are edible and are in demand both in cooking and in the food industry. The scientific name of the cranberry is translated from the ancient Greek language as "sour berry". The pioneers of America called the cranberry the cranberry, and in New England in the 17th century, the cranberry was known as the bear berry because people saw grizzlies eat it on multiple occasions.
The origin of the Russian name is not known for certain, but in some dialects it is called a crane by analogy with the American word cranberry.
In nature, cranberry bushes grow mainly in damp places - in sphagnum coniferous forests, in swamps, along the swampy shores of reservoirs. In the culture, the type of garden cranberry is grown.
Read more about growing cranberries below.
Cranberry is a creeping plant. Its evergreen bushes reach a height of 15 to 60 cm. The root system of the plant is stem. The alternate leaves of the cranberry, located on short petioles, have an ovoid or oblong shape. They reach 15 mm in length and 6 mm in width. The upper side of the leaf plate is dark green, the lower side is whitish due to a wax coating that protects the leaves from water. Cranberries begin to bloom in May or June, with pink or light purple flowers opening on long stalks, each of which lives for 18 days. The fruit of the cranberry is an ovoid or spherical sour red berry with a diameter of up to 16 mm.
Despite the fact that due to its healing properties, cranberries are very popular, in culture they are not as common as gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, black or red currants. Recently, however, along with crops such as strawberries, blackberries, blueberries and blueberries, it has begun to gain more and more space in our gardens. For those gardeners who have not yet grown this wonderful berry, we suggest reading our article, which provides information on how to plant and care for cranberries in a garden plot, what diseases and pests of cranberries can complicate its cultivation, how to propagate cranberries, how to feed cranberries to increase their yield, and what kind of care the cranberries need after harvest.
Planting cranberries is best in early spring, as soon as the ground on the site thaws to a depth of 8-10 cm. Choose an open, sunny place with a high degree of humidity for the cranberries. It is desirable that the groundwater is close to the surface. If your garden has a stream, pond or lake, plant cranberries on its banks, and it is not so bad if it is partially in the shade of the trees growing nearby.
Cranberries love acidic (pH 3.5-4.5) peat soil or forest substrate with sphagnum, and if you don't have one on your site, cut off the top layer of soil 20-25 cm thick and replace it with a mixture of approximately the following composition: forest humus, sand, forest soil and peat in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 2 with the addition of rotted needles.
Before planting cranberries, dig holes 10 cm deep at a distance of 20 cm from each other and sprinkle them with warm water. Place 2 seedlings 15-20 cm high in each hole, then fill the hole with soil, but do not compact it. You will receive the first berries only in the third year after planting, and cranberries will give a full harvest only in the fourth year - on average, half a kilogram from each m² of the plot. For the first two years, cranberries will simply decorate your garden with their picturesque thickets, which are often used by designers to decorate the landscape.
In autumn, cranberries are not planted, but it is advisable to prepare a site for spring planting in September. And first of all, you should fence the future bed for cranberries, digging rotten material - slate, plastic, pieces of roofing material - into the ground along its perimeter to a depth of 20 cm. This fence should rise 20-30 cm above the ground.
Growing cranberries is easy. In early spring, when the berry becomes green, carry out a thinning pruning of cranberries and feed it with full mineral fertilizer, given that its concentration should not be strong - cranberries tolerate a deficiency more easily than an excess of fertilizers. Keep the soil slightly damp at all times, loosen it and regularly remove weeds from the area. Since cranberries are pollinated by bees, plant melliferous plants near the cranberry bed - savory, oregano, etc.
In the summer, especially in its second half, make sure that the soil in the garden does not dry out. Since cranberries only grow well in acidic soil, add vinegar or citric acid to the water when watering three to four-year-old bushes. If you think the cranberries are not growing well, feed them by adding fertilizer to the water for irrigation.
Treat cranberries with fungicides as a preventive measure or if necessary. Loosen the soil in the area and fight weeds - for the first three years, weeding the beds should be a regular procedure. Areas with cranberries older than three years are mulched every 3-4 years with a layer of peat chips or coarse sand 1.5-2 cm thick.
In autumn, harvest time comes - in September-October, cranberries are harvested unripe. The berries ripen during storage.
How to care for cranberries after harvest? To protect cranberries from pests and diseases, snowless winters and spring frosts, cranberries are poured several times with a layer of 2 cm at a temperature of -5ºC, allowing each layer to freeze through until the plants are completely hidden under the ice. If the winters in your area are not too harsh, you can simply cover the cranberries with spruce branches or spunbond.
In order to protect the cranberries growing in constantly moist soil from fungal diseases, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments of the culture with fungicides several times during the growing season. In the spring, during the period of swelling and budding, cranberries are sprayed with one percent Bordeaux liquid or Azofos.
During the budding period, cranberries are processed three times with an interval of a week from gray mold and spots with a solution of 4 g of Skor or Horus preparations in 10 liters of water. If necessary, after flowering, the treatment of cranberries from gray mold can be carried out again. In November, the site is treated with one percent Bordeaux liquid.
The first two weeks after planting, cranberry seedlings are watered daily, but then you should adhere to this rule: the soil should be moist all the time, but not wet. In May and June, watering should be infrequent and moderate, since excess water at this time negatively affects the quality of the berries. During the peak of the heat, cranberries need cooling irrigation, and during the period of prolonged drought, the soil should be moistened daily. From August to October, regular watering of the cranberries is necessary. Moisten the soil to the depth of the root layer.
Caring for cranberries involves regular feeding of the plant. In the first year of growth, cranberries are fed for the first time 3 weeks after planting with the Universal fertilizer from the following calculation: half a tablespoon of fertilizer per square meter of land. Such feeding is continued every 2 weeks until the end of July. In mid-August, and then in mid-October, cranberries are fed with Autumn fertilizer at the rate of a third of a spoon per m².
Cranberries of the second and third years are fertilized according to the same scheme, and from the fourth year the amount of fertilizers is reduced - during the growing season 6 dressings are carried out at the rate of one third of a tablespoon of fertilizer per m².
Cranberries are pruned in spring, in May. The first three years, while the bush grows, lay the foundation for its shape - compact or spreading.
How to prune cranberries? If you decide to form a compact tall bush, cut off all thin, low-hardy creeping shoots in the spring, stimulating the growth of vertical branches, and if you prefer "spreading cranberries", stimulate the formation of horizontal shoots by pruning. But keep in mind that it is easier to remove the berry from a tall bush.
In the fall, cranberries are pruned only if absolutely necessary.
Cranberries are propagated generatively and vegetatively. Seed propagation is carried out mainly for a breeding experiment, since the daughter plant does not inherit the characteristics of the parent plant. If you want to immediately get varietal seedlings, carry out green grafting of cranberries.
Green cranberry cuttings are harvested during the period of intensive shoot growth. The length of the cuttings should be at least 10 cm. They are planted in a school, pots with a substrate of high peat with sand and rotted needles, or immediately to a permanent place - according to the 7x7 cm scheme, so that the cranberry branches close together more quickly. The cuttings are deepened by 2-3 cm, after planting, the soil is slightly compacted and watered abundantly. Until the cuttings take root, make sure that the soil is always wet - sometimes you will have to water the garden twice a day.
In the days of the merciless sun, organize the seedlings with fabric protection. Cranberry cuttings usually take root quickly and easily.
To get the seed, the cranberries that have ripened well on the bush are kneaded and washed in a large amount of water, the seeds are allowed to settle on a sieve and immediately sown. If cranberry seeds have been stored for some time before planting, they must be stratified. Re-layer the seeds in a box with a moist mixture of peat and sand in a ratio of 4: 1 and keep for 2.5-3 months at a temperature of 3 to 7 ºC in free air. Seeds are sown in spring (after stratification) or at the end of summer (freshly harvested) in a container with high-moor peat - on the surface of the substrate, without burying it. From above, through a sieve, they are covered with a layer of sand 2-3 mm thick or covered with a layer of crushed peat up to 5 mm thick, then watered, covered with glass and placed in a bright, warm place.
Crops must be regularly moistened and aired, and when mold appears on the surface of the substrate, it must be treated with a fungicide. Seedlings will appear in 2-4 weeks, after which the glass is removed, but watering does not stop. At the stage of development in seedlings of 4-5 leaves, they are dived one by one into pots or to a garden bed in a greenhouse at a distance of 10 cm from each other. The seedlings are grown throughout the year, watering and feeding them regularly with a solution of 1 tablespoon of Kemira-universal in 10 liters of water at the rate of 1 liter per m², trying not to get the solution on the leaves, otherwise their burns are possible.
From mid-April to mid-July, fertilizing is applied every two weeks. In August, the cover is removed from the greenhouse, and at the end of October, the bed is mulched with a layer of peat 5-7 cm thick and covered with two layers of spunbond for the winter. In the spring, the spunbond is harvested, and the seedlings are transplanted into a school, where they are grown for another year or two, after which they are transplanted to a permanent place. You can get a harvest of berries from bushes grown by the seed method in 2-3 years after planting in a permanent place.
Adherence to agricultural techniques will allow you to maintain the health of cranberries at the proper level, but sometimes annoying troubles still happen, and some ailment can strike healthy cranberries. In such a situation, it is important not to get confused and immediately begin to fight the disease until it affects all the plants, and for this it is necessary to accurately determine the nature of the disease. So, what is cranberry sick with?
Snow mold - the most harmful disease, the development of which occurs from March to April. Symptoms of the disease are red-brown color of cranberry buds and leaves, on which yellowish mycelium can be seen. By the end of spring, the affected leaves take on an ashy color and fall off. If the disease is not dealt with, the lesions increase in size, merge, and the entire plant may die.
Control measures. In the fall, the site is sprayed with a Fundazol solution in accordance with the instructions, and for the winter, a step-by-step filling of the site with water with its layer-by-layer freezing is carried out.
Red spot - also a fungal disease that deforms shoots and causes them to die off. In addition to shoots, flowers, buds and pedicels of cranberries, which acquire a pinkish tint, are affected by red spotting. The leaves developing from the affected buds look like small roses.
Control measures. To destroy pathogens, cranberries are treated with a solution of 2 g of Fundazol or Topsin M in 1 liter of water.
Monilial burn - a fungal disease, from which the tops of the shoots wither, turn brown and dry. In humid weather, the affected area turns yellow, the cranberries are covered with a bloom of conidial sporulation. At the budding stage, the infection passes from diseased shoots to buds, flowers and ovaries, which causes flowers and buds to dry out, and diseased ovaries continue to develop, preparing a surprise for you in the form of rotting fruits.
Control measures. In the fight against moniliosis, fungicides Topsin M, Ronilan, Ditan, Bayleton and copper oxychloride have proven themselves well.
Phomopsis - a disease that causes the ends of cranberry shoots to dry out without signs of wilting. The leaves first turn yellow, then turn orange or bronze, but do not fall off. The stems are covered with dirty gray spots that turn into ulcers. Flowers and fruits turn brown. The disease progresses in dry and hot weather.
Control measures. To eliminate the primary infection, in spring, cranberries are treated with Topsin M or another systemic fungicide. Before active growth begins, spraying cranberries with Bordeaux liquid is effective.
Cytosporosis - This is the black rot of cranberries, the pathogens of which penetrate at the end of summer through small wounds on the plant.
Control measures. Cranberry black rot treatment - preventive treatments at the beginning and end of the season with Bordeaux liquid, Topsin M or copper oxychloride.
Gibber spot dangerous in that it causes massive premature fall of leaves, which greatly weakens the plant. In early August, small red-brown spots appear on the leaves, then shapeless and chlorotic spots with a dark rim and fruit bodies in the center.
Control measures. Hiberra is destroyed by treating cranberries with a solution of 2 g of fungicide (Topsin M, Fundazol, copper oxychloride) in 1 liter of ox.
Pestalocia affects fruits, stems and leaves of cranberries. First, dark brown spots appear on the greenery, then outlined with a dark border and gray spots merging with each other. Young shoots bend in a zigzag manner and dry out, the leaves fall off.
Control measures. Treatment of cranberries with copper chloride will help cope with the disease.
Ascochitosis can be recognized by the round, dark brown spots on the leaves and stems of cranberries. With the development of the disease, the surface under these spots cracks.
Control measures. An effective remedy for ascochitis is the treatment of cranberries in spring and autumn with fungicides - Fundazol, Topsin M, copper oxychloride.
Botrytis - this disease, which covers the stems, leaves and flowers of cranberries with a gray fluffy bloom of fungus in wet weather, does not affect young shoots. Another name for the disease is gray rot.
Control measures. Treat cranberries with Bordeaux liquid, Topsin M or copper oxychloride.
Terry cranberry, or overgrowth - a viral disease caused by mycoplasma organisms. The affected parts become like "witch's brooms" - the shoots rise, the leaves become smaller and adhere tightly to the shoots. Cranberries affected by overgrowth do not bear fruit, and from those ovaries that have already formed before the onset of the disease, small ugly fruits are obtained.
Control measures. How to spray cranberries to destroy sprouting pathogens? Such drugs have not yet been invented, so you just need to remove the diseased plant from the garden and burn it so that the disease does not spread throughout the garden.
Cranberries can infect more than 40 pests that feed on their ground organs. More often than others, on cranberries there are:
Pests are not able to cause significant damage to cranberries, therefore, as protective measures, one can limit themselves to adherence to agrotechnical rules for crop cultivation, and first of all, it is necessary to pay attention to regular control of weeds that oppress cranberries and create favorable conditions for harmful insects. Insecticides (Aktara, Aktellik, Karbofos, Metaphos and others) should be used only if absolutely necessary and no later than a month before harvesting, as well as after removing the berries.
The cranberry subgenus is represented by four types:
In culture, varieties and hybrids of large-fruited and four-petal, or marsh cranberries are most often grown.
European origin, it was introduced into culture at the end of the 20th century in the Baltic countries and in Russia. Of the many varieties of marsh cranberries today are well known:
The varieties of marsh cranberries Khotavetskaya and Severyanka also grow well in culture.
More than 200 varieties of which are known today, originally from North America. Its scientific name is Oxycoccus macrocarpus. Popular varieties of large-fruited American cranberries are:
In addition to those listed, such American large-fruited cranberry varieties as McFarlin, Wilcox, Black Whale, Earley Black, Crowley, Earley Rear, Bergman, Washington, Woolman, Beckwith and Howes are popular.
Cranberries contain the entire list of nutrients characteristic of the fruits of all berry crops, including sugars, organic acids (citric, ursolic, cinchona, benzoic, malic, chlorogenic, succinic, oleander and oxalic), vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6 , PP, K1 and C) and pectins. Cranberries also contain anthocyanins, leukoanthocyanins, catechins, betaine, macro- and microelements - iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, boron, cobalt, nickel, titanium, zinc, iodine, tin, chromium and silver.
Cranberry improves appetite and the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, protects the genitourinary system and intestines from infections, is a prophylactic anticancer agent, reduces the potential risk of atherosclerosis, and normalizes blood pressure. Cranberries are prescribed for those suffering from vitamin deficiency, fevers, respiratory diseases and rheumatism.
Cranberry juice has bactericidal, thirst-quenching and antipyretic effects, cleans wounds, heals burns and coughs, stimulates the pancreas, increases physical and mental activity.
It is strongly not recommended to eat cranberries for patients with stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, as well as those suffering from gastritis with high acidity. People with unhealthy livers are advised to consult a doctor before consuming cranberries, as it is likely that they can exacerbate the disease. Caution should also be exercised by those who have weakened or thinned tooth enamel.
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Berry bushes Heather (Erik) Plants on K
Correct pruning of bougainvillea contributes to the formation of the desired shape, plant renewal and lengthening of the flowering period. The shrub can be shaped to any shape. If you do not trim, the number of side stems will decrease and this will ruin the decorative appearance of the entire bush.
Bougainvillea is pruned in three ways:
The loosestrife belongs to those garden plants that practically do not need care. The exception is crops that are planted in insufficiently moist soil. For such loosestriders, it is necessary to constantly compensate for moisture evaporation and maintain stable soil indicators. Regular and abundant watering, in particular, is necessary for all loosestrife growing on flower beds.
But those that grow near water bodies do not need watering at all. But at the same time, one should not be afraid that a short-term drought and complete drying out of the soil will deplorably affect the attractiveness of plakun-grass: loosestriders really prefer wet conditions, but they are so hardy that they will not suffer from their absence for a certain period.
Willow loosestrife, or Plakun-grass. © widnr
In order for the loosestrife to have enough nutrients in the soil for abundant and long flowering, it is necessary to maintain stable soil characteristics annually by the method of early spring feeding. It is best to mulch the soil with compost or peat, which will play the role of not only a long-lasting fertilizer, but also a means of maintaining stable soil moisture. It is advisable to carry out the first mulching immediately after planting, and then renew it annually in the spring. But you can replace mulching with fertilizers in the soil.
With the beginning of the flowering period, in order to achieve the greatest decorative effect of the loosestrife, it is advisable to use mineral fertilizers for additional stimulation of the formation of new peduncles. Any fertilizer mixture for garden flowering plants will work. The only requirement is the minimum nitrogen content in them. Placun grass, unlike all other perennials, reacts to an excess of nitrogen not by actively growing greenery, but by lodging shoots.
Willow loosestrife. © WhatsAllThisThen
Pruning is a mandatory component of caring for this perennial. Traditionally, only one pruning is carried out, sanitary, removing the ground parts left over from the last year. The loosestrife can also be cut at the end of autumn, completely cutting off all aerial parts at the root, or leaving dry shoots to decorate the winter garden and carry out such a complete pruning in the spring.
Formative pruning is carried out depending on the quality in which the loosestrife grows and how important the shape and silhouette are for the beauty of the overall composition. In natural-style gardens, the loosestrife does not need such pruning, but if you want to maintain a more accurate and architectural form of the plant, then during the summer it is advisable to carry out a formation that gives the bushes a greater density and regularity of shape.
Do not forget to cut off the faded flower stalks before the seeds ripen. This plant is prone to self-sowing and due to this it is quite aggressive, the seeds germinate quickly and take root very well, therefore, the timely cutting of the inflorescences will prevent the unwanted spread of the loosestrife in the garden.
These large perennials are considered pest and disease resistant. But in garden culture, especially on flower beds with roses, they are often attacked by aphids, which easily move to dense loosestrife from neighboring plants. Therefore, in compositions with loosestrife, it is extremely important to conduct constant monitoring for the earliest possible detection of pests and prevent their spread. It is better to fight aphids on this plant immediately with insecticides.
Without exception, all loosestrife are frost-resistant hardy plants, for which, for successful wintering in the middle lane, there is no need to provide even the slightest shelter in the form of hilling with dry leaves, and even more so to create intensive protection.
Willow loosestrife. © liz west
Ben Lear (Early Black)
The Ben Lear cranberry variety is one of the earliest ripening varieties. The berries ripen at the end of August. Productivity - up to 2 kg per sq. meter of soil. Fruits are large, dark burgundy with a sour-sugary taste. Stored for no more than two weeks.
The Franklin cranberry is a mid-season variety. You can harvest no earlier than mid-September: up to 1.5 liters from each sq. m plantation. Deep red berries that can be stored without freezing and processing for up to 4 months.
The Stevens cranberry variety ripens in late September - early October, forming a powerful vegetative system. It is resistant to diseases, and the berries, covered with a dense thick skin, are perfectly stored without processing for up to a year. The most productive variety - gives up to 2 liters of berries well. meter of soil.
When planting cranberries in a suburban area, it is better to organize several mini-plantations side by side for good mutual pollination of flowers - this way you will get a more bountiful harvest. Have you tried planting cranberries in the country? Share your secrets))